I stumbled upon this on random google search, Leon be happy cause I think I know your issue and a easy fix.
I had this issue myself, and blamed OneDrive for it. Then I though, maybe CCleaner is cleaning something and causing it.. checked around settings and ticked off something called Network Passwords in Windows Explorer, which I saw you have on too. It also seems CCleaner cleans when starting up too.
I then tested to restart my PC a few times, and OneDrive never wanted to ask me for password again. Could you try this and come back if it worked or not? It seems to have for me.